wk 6

wk 6

Both Mane-Wheoki and Anderson describe how Māori visual and material culture has been framed by predominantly western accounts. Discuss this, using both readings to support your discussion (100 words). Choose an example of 20th century art/design from anywhere in “Tangata Whenua: An Illustrated History”. Upload the example to your blog and explain how the work can be considered from a Māori worldview (consider origins, customary practices etc) (100 words).

 

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237131 – Wk 5 Blog task

237131 – Wk 5 Blog task

Chapter 9 (Wars and Survival) of Tangata Whenua – an illustrated history, details of the historical wars that NZ faced during the period of 1860-1872.

The beginning of the wars started in Taranaki as the issue of land ownership arose.The chief stated the Waitara land was not for sale yet the government pushed for against this and ignored Maori objections. This led to Maori grouping together in order to fight the British Government who insisted on surveying and buying land that was not for sale.”Maori had to calibrate decisions carefully…to preserve tribal autonomy while protecting their lands…weighing the value of alliance with or resistance against the government” (256) “Lives were lost on all sides and for several iwi, land would be confiscated as well” (256)

Overall the wars were not just about the rights and ownership of land but the larger issue of sovereignty and Rangatiratanga. “The Taranaki wars was never simply about the fate of a 600 acre block of land at Waitara.”(256)

We are able to see the lasting effects of the war with visual and material culture with the NZ flag. This flag excluded Maori culture and instead highlights the difference between the two cultures. Instead of uniting two cultures as one nation, it divided them.

Works Cited

Anderson, Atholl, Binney, Judith and Harris, Aroha. “Chapter 9: Wars and survival”. Tangata whenua: An illustrated history. Bridget Williams Books, 2014. Print.

Anderson, Robyn. “Across Time: Ngā Haki, Ngā Kara Flags”. Tangata Whenua: An Illustrated History. Robyn Anderson. Aotearoa: Bridget Williams Books, 2014. 284-285. Print.

 

Rarangi Kupu/ Glossary

Rarangi Kupu/ Glossary

Important and Maori key terminology

Tikanga – A correct way of procedure, method, custom, protocol

Mana – Ones power, prestige, authority, respect, influence, status

Kaupapa – Topic, agenda, policy, subject

Korero – story, narrative, conversation

Powhiri – welcome ritual/ceremony

Whenua – Land

Mihimihi – greetings, tribute.

Poroporoaraki – Farewell

Atua – ancestor, god, deity

Tangata – Peoples, persons.

Tapu – sacred, restricted, prohibited

Hapu – kinship group, sub- tribe

Taonga – Treasure, property, prized possessions

Whakapapa – genealogy, lineage, descent

Iwi – tribe, nationality, nation

Matauranga – Knowledge, understanding, wisdom

Moana – Ocean

Awa – River

Maunga – Mountai

Te Tiriti o Waitangi – Treaty of Waitangi

Tiro Rangatiratanga – self determination,autonomy, sovereignty

 

 

237.131 – Wk 4 Blog task

237.131 – Wk 4 Blog task

Whanaungatanga

Meaning – relationship, kinship, sense of familiar connection through shared experiences. Not just limited to blood family as others with close bond are also included.

This term is one of the main elements that make up the values of Tikanga. Whanau (Family/Kin). The idea of Whanaungatanga is of relationships and supporting one another. It can be applied to art and design  The relationship between the art/design, the audience or viewers and the artist themselves if they so wish to be included. The term recognises and emphasises the importance of embracing and supporting each other from near and afar and how fragile relationships are, therefore require nurturing.

“Whaungatanga embraces the whakapapa and focuses upon relationships” (Mead. Chapter 2)

Intellectual Property and Copyright Laws

There are many faults in way in which intellectual property and copyright laws exist to address the misuse of Taonga works  but the main issue is the difference in Western and Maori ideals of protection. Taonga are two things – a body of work in which it embodies a pre-existing set of values, insights and knowledge (matauranga maori) and it is the creative efforts of the real individual person/s.  Since the IP laws were founded upon western ideals and understandings , the laws refer to how the creator has exclusive rights of the physical work by “excluding others from using it” (33.) However  this actually contrasts highly against the Maori ideals of Kaitiakanga which  ” obligations in respect of taonga works and the underlying matauranga”(33) meaning that it’s not just the physical misuse of the work that must be protected but also the information it presents.

Internationally, how Taonga works are to be used are not efficiently protected or regulated as stated by the International IP laws due to the limitations of the laws – “It establishes the minimum standards of protection in several areas including copy rights, trademarks, geographical indications, industrial designs, patens and plant variety rights that all members of the World Trade Organisation must comply with ” (1.1.15)

Furthermore, (Taonga Works and Intellectual property) state that IP rules are not 100% guaranteed in protecting works of misuse . “However, IP rules are never absolute. A balance is constantly being struck by the interests of the creator or inventor in receiving a fair award for their creative efforts and the interests of the wider community in access to and the use of the knowledge” (33)

While Maori have brought up the issue of how the IP laws are not fully equipped to protect the works and kaitiaki relationships of Taonga, the Crown has argued back putting any more regulations in place would “stifle innovation and deprive others of access to knowledge and underpin or inspire the creation of new works” (34). Therefore these IP laws and copyright laws are not completely successful in protecting the Taonga works of Maori.

 

 

 

Works Cited

Mead, Hirini Moko. “Chapter 2: Nga Putake o te Tikanga – Underlying Principles and Values”. Tikanga Maori: Living By Maori Values. Aotearoa: Huia Publishers, 2003. 25-34. Print.

Taonga Works and Intellectual Property (2011) in Ko Aotearoa Tenei – A Report into Claims Concerning New Zealand Law and Policy Affecting Maori Culture and Identity.

Assessment 1 -237.131 Wk 3 blog task

Assessment 1 -237.131 Wk 3 blog task

 

 

 

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Aotea Utanganui Museum of South Taranaki. Photo Richard Wotton.

 

Made during the period of Te Tipunga the growth (1200 TO 1500CE), the haumi (Cover) was created to deflect oncoming waves from the canoe prow. The haumi was discovered in a swamp site near Patea in 1975 and

One aspect of the haumi that directly relates to the period it was from and the context is the interesting carvings that decorate the tool/art. It shows that creators were transitioning between the Eastern Polynesian style of carving into the late Maori carving style. By hand chiseling into the timber, the haumi close up shows small pecks that add up to a design. It shows the crucial in-between stage before Maori completely changed into their own traditional and original style.There are traces of the geometric and ancestral designs of the East Polynesian style mixed with evidence of the distinctive Maori forms.

Works Cited

Harris, Atholl Anderson, Judith Binney and Aroha. “Chapter Three: Pieces of the Past.” Tangata Whenua: An Illustrated History. New Zealand: Bridget Williams, 2012. 70-101. Print.

Assessment 1 -237.131 Wk 2 blog task

Assessment 1 -237.131 Wk 2 blog task

 

Chosen artwork – Hei Tiki

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Hei Tiki, which translates to Hei – Neck pendant and Tiki -Human, are important examples of art that has been passed down the Maori Culture. They symbolized the significance of lineage and were highly prized possessions worn by both men and women. Also known to be given to pregnant women as a source of protection. These carvings were generally made out of various stones, bone or wood and were known to be worn on formal occasions.

Later evolved over time into more of an original Maori classic design which differentiated from the early 17th century Polynesian designs with more symmetrical forms.

Atoll Anderson states that “A number of contemporary Maori artists explore the meaning and significance of Hei Tiki.” which shows the just how important this design is to the Maori history and culture as it is still being analysed and explored.

Works cited

Harris, Atholl Anderson, Judith Binney and Aroha. “Ancient Origins.” Tangata Whenua: An Illustrated History. New Zealand: Bridget Williams, 2012. 16-41. Print.