Week 10 blog task

Week 10 blog task

1. Inspired by Kerry Ann Lee’s lecture and Tze Ming Mok’s essay, create a piece of creative non-fiction in which you talk about your own cultural identity. You must make at least one connection to a significant moment in the history of Aotearoa (i.e. like Tze Ming Mok did with the attack on Chi Phung, the National Front protest, and the Seabed and Foreshore hīkoi), and you must draw from your own lived experience. (200 words)

Kerry Ann Lee’s lecture resonated with me as I am a 2nd generation Korea in NZ and made me think about my own cultural identity as a Korean Kiwi. While I was born in NZ and consider myself a kiwi, I’m not always seen as one as people still to this day assume I am a ‘foreigner’ as I look Asian in appearance.

A connection with a significant moment in the  history of Aotearoa to me, would be the attack on Chi Phung, the 23-year-old Vietnamese student who came to NZ six years ago. She was brutally attacked by a skinhead who punched her in the chest and while she lay on the ground crying and hurt, no passing people attempted to help her. This vicious and cruel attack not only showed the racist ideals of people but also showed how it was enabled and allowed to happen as no one tried to help her. The passing people may have been not directly racist but refusing to help her contributes to the racist ideas and enables such hate crimes.

“He punched me under my breast so hard that I fell down and I cried for about 20 minutes. Nobody in the crowd stopped to help.” – Chi Phung

It reminded me of when I was little and I had to learn quickly that I was different. Like, Laura Toailoa, I became totally aware that I was not the same as other kiwi children. I would get verbally abused in the streets by strangers; things such as “Go back to China”(despite the fact I’m of Korean descent), “stop taking all our bloody jobs” (despite the fact I was a child and was in no position to take anyone’s job), “Bloody Asian invaders” (despite the fact I didn’t invade here, I was born here) and one instance I even had rubbish thrown at me from passing cars. Children would even yell racist slang at me yet their mothers who witnessed this did not correct them. This shows just like Chi Phung’s incident, that people enable this race hate by not standing up, not correcting others and choose to look the other way. Did it matter to these people that they didn’t know me and I was Korean Kiwi? No. All they saw was a foreigner’s face and despite knowing my cultural identity and who I was, I felt attacked, isolated, and helpless at the lack of anyone coming to my defense.

Such blatant racism and the microaggressions I faced during my younger years made me feel that my cultural identity as a second generation ‘Kiwi Korean’ was something that hindered me in life and often asked my parents “why couldn’t I be born kiwi?” to which they responded, “but you are.” They were right but at the time I couldn’t seem to stop wishing I had been born a ‘white kiwi’ because then I wouldn’t have to face the negativity that was attached to being an Asian in NZ.

2. Go to the library and ask for one of the 237.131 2 hour loan books. Find the name of a creative practitioner in that book, then search for that name on the book catalog PCs (upstairs, Level B – don’t use Discover). Locate an image of their work (preferably in print) that fits with your creative writing. Scan this and upload it to your blog, remembering to include a caption.

My chosen creative practitioner is Andy Leleisi’uao. Born in NZ, this Samoan artist uses a ‘Kamoan’ (Kiwi/Samoan) perspective in which he “provides a voice for the generational experiences of the Newz Zealand-born Samoan people living between two cultures” (Home AKLE : Artists of Pacific Heritage in Auckland.69).  Leleisi’uao, like myself, is Kiwi Born with immigrant parents, who has faced the two cultural clashes of being Samoan and Kiwi.

“Waking up to my Polynesian spine” is a work of Leleisi’uao who he says is part of 23 artworks in his exhibition where he exposes the true realities of Pacific migrants and their experience of the land that was supposed to be ‘Milk and Honey’. The artwork below demonstrates his “raw and confronting style” of addressing  and creating awareness for the issues for NZ born and island born Samoans.


Waking up to My Polynesian Spine.1998. Andy Leleisui’uao.


Works cited

Tze Ming, Mok. “Tze Ming Mok: Being Asian – the Struggle to Belong.” New Zealand Herald. N.p., 1 June 2005. Web.

Toailoa, Laura. “Where Are You From?” E Tangata 11 Sept. 2016: n. pag. Print.

Robertson, Christine. “Growing up Samoan in New Zealand and the Racist Microaggressions I’ve Faced along the Way.” Thatsus. Human Rights Commission NZ, 21 Oct. 2016. Web.

Brownson, Ron, Kolokesa Mahina-Tuai, Albert L. Refiti, Emma Tavola, and Nina Tonga. Home AKL : Artists of Pacific Heritage in Auckland. N.p.: n.p., n.d. Print.

Week 8 Blog task

Week 8 Blog task

1.Select one of the examples of a representation of poverty or wealth in Aotearoa New Zealand in Dr. Greg Gilbert’s lecture. Upload an image of this example to your blog. Describe the example and the context in which it was made, then discuss it in relation to one of the key concepts Greg introduced in his lecture, using sources other than Greg to support your ideas. These sources may be ones that Greg references in his lecture (100 words).

An example of poverty representation in Aotearoa NZ is what Dr Greg Gilbert talked about in his lecture. There is a harmful stereotype of people who are classified as “Poor” as they are considered and categorised (According to Gans (1995, 6-7),  as things such as

– Undeserving of assistance
– to blame for their poverty and situation
– lazy, unwilling to help themselves

The cartoon image by Al Nisbert shows a negative stereotype of poverty that is often joked about by people. It features some overweight, dark-skinned adults pretending to be children in uniform in order to get a free school lunch so they can have more money for cigarettes, alcohol, and gambling. They are shown to be exploiting the free school lunch system that NZ was considering putting in to place.

It reinforces the stereotype of Pacific Island/Polynesian/Maori people are all greedy, lazy and are their own fault for their situation as they chose to live this way.


290513 The Marlborough Express Al Nisbet cartoon






Week 7 blog post

Week 7 blog post

1. Identify one key point and/or theme from the Week 7 lecture. Find an academic source (not the lecture itself, but the source may be one that is cited in the lecture) for that key point/theme.Paraphrase the academic source text relating to the key point/theme. Remember to accurately reference the source using the MLA style (50 words)

A key theme from the week 7 lecture, was the idea of racism towards Pacific/Polynesian people in the form of political propaganda that was spread by the media. It instilled fear, increased racism against brown people and enhanced harmful stereotypes against those with Pacific/Polynesian descent.

Especially during the National’s party Robert Muldoon’s campaign for the 1975 election, he screened powerful, emotive and racist commercials that showcased the increased immigration from the Pacific Islands as a horrible thing as islanders were shown to be violent, aggressive, scary and greedy.

“They featured cartoons of violent brown people with huge afro’s, arriving off the place going to the pub, stealing jobs” Oscar Keightly – Dawn raids.

Watch clip  Here.

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National party’s political propaganda depicting brown people as something to be feared. 1975

2. Using examples in “All Power to the People” by Melani Anae (2012), or “The Many Faces of Paradise” by Caroline Vercoe (2004), describe one of the art/design/creative responses to the socio-political situation that confronted Pacific Islanders in Aotearoa in the late 20th century (50 – 75 words).

One of the design responses found in “All Power to the People” by Melani Anae, was the logo of the Polynesian movement that stood to defend and be the justice movement for those of Polynesian/Pacific descent who faced unfair oppression by police and the NZ government.


Polynesian Panther Movement based off the original Black Panthers founded in 1966 by Huey Newton and Bobby Seale.  While they both stood to protect neighbourhoods and communities from acts of police brutality, the NZ group realised they had to make it more specific and relatable to those of the Pacific/Polynesian community so altered it to the Polynesian Panther party. This design worked as the logo was.

  • recognisable
  • relatable
  • United by the original movements ‘black unity’

3. Write a synopsis of the documentary ‘Dawn Raids’ (Fepulea’i, D. 2005) (50 – 75 words)

The documentary ‘Dawn Raids’ confronts the real NZ historical issue of when illegal immigrant overstayers were targeted in local communities during the mid-1970’s to the 1980’s. The illegal immigrants consisted of mainly Pacific Islander and Polynesian workers who were initially welcomed by the NZ government after the postwar economic boom as jobs were plentiful; only to be forcibly removed from the country after NZ’s economy wasn’t so stable.

Special police forces struck at dawn to catch these overstayers outside their houses as this was before they went to work, thus the only chance to catch them.However the issue just wasn’t with the overstayers, it was with New Zealand’s racist attitude to those of brown skin colour and how these were spread with media as turns out the majority of overstayers were from Great Britain, South Africa and Australia.

Works Cited

Dawn Raids. Dir. Damon Fepulea’i. Prod. Rachel Jean. Dawn Raids Documentary. N.p., n.d. Web.

Anae, Melani. “All Power to the People.” 2012: 221-39. Print.




237131 – Wk 5 Blog task

237131 – Wk 5 Blog task

Chapter 9 (Wars and Survival) of Tangata Whenua – an illustrated history, details of the historical wars that NZ faced during the period of 1860-1872.

The beginning of the wars started in Taranaki as the issue of land ownership arose.The chief stated the Waitara land was not for sale yet the government pushed for against this and ignored Maori objections. This led to Maori grouping together in order to fight the British Government who insisted on surveying and buying land that was not for sale.”Maori had to calibrate decisions carefully…to preserve tribal autonomy while protecting their lands…weighing the value of alliance with or resistance against the government” (256) “Lives were lost on all sides and for several iwi, land would be confiscated as well” (256)

Overall the wars were not just about the rights and ownership of land but the larger issue of sovereignty and Rangatiratanga. “The Taranaki wars was never simply about the fate of a 600 acre block of land at Waitara.”(256)

We are able to see the lasting effects of the war with visual and material culture with the NZ flag. This flag excluded Maori culture and instead highlights the difference between the two cultures. Instead of uniting two cultures as one nation, it divided them.

Works Cited

Anderson, Atholl, Binney, Judith and Harris, Aroha. “Chapter 9: Wars and survival”. Tangata whenua: An illustrated history. Bridget Williams Books, 2014. Print.

Anderson, Robyn. “Across Time: Ngā Haki, Ngā Kara Flags”. Tangata Whenua: An Illustrated History. Robyn Anderson. Aotearoa: Bridget Williams Books, 2014. 284-285. Print.


Rarangi Kupu/ Glossary

Rarangi Kupu/ Glossary

Important and Maori key terminology

Tikanga – A correct way of procedure, method, custom, protocol

Mana – Ones power, prestige, authority, respect, influence, status

Kaupapa – Topic, agenda, policy, subject

Korero – story, narrative, conversation

Powhiri – welcome ritual/ceremony

Whenua – Land

Mihimihi – greetings, tribute.

Poroporoaraki – Farewell

Atua – ancestor, god, deity

Tangata – Peoples, persons.

Tapu – sacred, restricted, prohibited

Hapu – kinship group, sub- tribe

Taonga – Treasure, property, prized possessions

Whakapapa – genealogy, lineage, descent

Iwi – tribe, nationality, nation

Matauranga – Knowledge, understanding, wisdom

Moana – Ocean

Awa – River

Maunga – Mountai

Te Tiriti o Waitangi – Treaty of Waitangi

Tiro Rangatiratanga – self determination,autonomy, sovereignty



237.131 – Wk 4 Blog task

237.131 – Wk 4 Blog task


Meaning – relationship, kinship, sense of familiar connection through shared experiences. Not just limited to blood family as others with close bond are also included.

This term is one of the main elements that make up the values of Tikanga. Whanau (Family/Kin). The idea of Whanaungatanga is of relationships and supporting one another. It can be applied to art and design  The relationship between the art/design, the audience or viewers and the artist themselves if they so wish to be included. The term recognises and emphasises the importance of embracing and supporting each other from near and afar and how fragile relationships are, therefore require nurturing.

“Whaungatanga embraces the whakapapa and focuses upon relationships” (Mead. Chapter 2)

Intellectual Property and Copyright Laws

There are many faults in way in which intellectual property and copyright laws exist to address the misuse of Taonga works  but the main issue is the difference in Western and Maori ideals of protection. Taonga are two things – a body of work in which it embodies a pre-existing set of values, insights and knowledge (matauranga maori) and it is the creative efforts of the real individual person/s.  Since the IP laws were founded upon western ideals and understandings , the laws refer to how the creator has exclusive rights of the physical work by “excluding others from using it” (33.) However  this actually contrasts highly against the Maori ideals of Kaitiakanga which  ” obligations in respect of taonga works and the underlying matauranga”(33) meaning that it’s not just the physical misuse of the work that must be protected but also the information it presents.

Internationally, how Taonga works are to be used are not efficiently protected or regulated as stated by the International IP laws due to the limitations of the laws – “It establishes the minimum standards of protection in several areas including copy rights, trademarks, geographical indications, industrial designs, patens and plant variety rights that all members of the World Trade Organisation must comply with ” (1.1.15)

Furthermore, (Taonga Works and Intellectual property) state that IP rules are not 100% guaranteed in protecting works of misuse . “However, IP rules are never absolute. A balance is constantly being struck by the interests of the creator or inventor in receiving a fair award for their creative efforts and the interests of the wider community in access to and the use of the knowledge” (33)

While Maori have brought up the issue of how the IP laws are not fully equipped to protect the works and kaitiaki relationships of Taonga, the Crown has argued back putting any more regulations in place would “stifle innovation and deprive others of access to knowledge and underpin or inspire the creation of new works” (34). Therefore these IP laws and copyright laws are not completely successful in protecting the Taonga works of Maori.




Works Cited

Mead, Hirini Moko. “Chapter 2: Nga Putake o te Tikanga – Underlying Principles and Values”. Tikanga Maori: Living By Maori Values. Aotearoa: Huia Publishers, 2003. 25-34. Print.

Taonga Works and Intellectual Property (2011) in Ko Aotearoa Tenei – A Report into Claims Concerning New Zealand Law and Policy Affecting Maori Culture and Identity.

Assessment 1 -237.131 Wk 3 blog task

Assessment 1 -237.131 Wk 3 blog task




Aotea Utanganui Museum of South Taranaki. Photo Richard Wotton.


Made during the period of Te Tipunga the growth (1200 TO 1500CE), the haumi (Cover) was created to deflect oncoming waves from the canoe prow. The haumi was discovered in a swamp site near Patea in 1975 and

One aspect of the haumi that directly relates to the period it was from and the context is the interesting carvings that decorate the tool/art. It shows that creators were transitioning between the Eastern Polynesian style of carving into the late Maori carving style. By hand chiseling into the timber, the haumi close up shows small pecks that add up to a design. It shows the crucial in-between stage before Maori completely changed into their own traditional and original style.There are traces of the geometric and ancestral designs of the East Polynesian style mixed with evidence of the distinctive Maori forms.

Works Cited

Harris, Atholl Anderson, Judith Binney and Aroha. “Chapter Three: Pieces of the Past.” Tangata Whenua: An Illustrated History. New Zealand: Bridget Williams, 2012. 70-101. Print.