In each of your assignments for Studio this year you made work that responded to a concept integral to the pōwhiri process – Mihimihi, Tūrangawaewae, Ātea, and Hākari. Define the concept that corresponds with the project you feel was the best thing you made in Studio all year. (25 words)
The concept that corresponds with the best project I made this year in Studio would have to be Turangawaewae. Turangawaewae is the integral Maori concept that is the idea of where one stands in relation to the residence, belonging and family. The foundation of where we come from is Turangawaewae – it’s our home and our place in the world where we feel most at peace.
2. Discuss the work you made:describe its physical attributes, the concept/s behind it, and the wider context in which you made it. (100 words)
Turangawaewae was the second concept of the powhiri process that I completed in the studio assignment. My work was a noise maker that sounded of home to me.
Originally a red desk lamp, I recycled it by taking the ‘cup’ and the lamp base and gluing together with some super glue and drilling various sized holes throughout the body. Gravel rocks were hung inside and when shaken in a circular motion, it ‘clinked’, ‘tinged’ and hit with the larger gravel stone, it ‘clanged’ and echoed. The concept behind this is the bell sounds of my bike I rode throughout my neighbourhood of Papamoa in Tauranga and the gravel paths I used to ride on. Our group had to each make noisemakers that were inspired by Turangawaewae, or the home we come from and combined as a group performance, it was to reflect these ideals in harmony.
3. Erna Stachl discusses decolonisation and ManaWahine in her lecture. How did you consider gender and/or indigeneity and/or the intersections between the two in your work? Why should you be thinking about this at all? Use key ideas in the lecture and the texts by Ani Mikaere and Linda Tuhiwai-Smith to support your argument. (75 words)
1. Inspired by Kerry Ann Lee’s lecture and Tze Ming Mok’s essay, create a piece of creative non-fiction in which you talk about your own cultural identity. You must make at least one connection to a significant moment in the history of Aotearoa (i.e. like Tze Ming Mok did with the attack on Chi Phung, the National Front protest, and the Seabed and Foreshore hīkoi), and you must draw from your own lived experience. (200 words)
Kerry Ann Lee’s lecture resonated with me as I am a 2nd generation Korea in NZ and made me think about my own cultural identity as a Korean Kiwi. While I was born in NZ and consider myself a kiwi, I’m not always seen as one as people still to this day assume I am a ‘foreigner’ as I look Asian in appearance.
A connection with a significant moment in the history of Aotearoa to me, would be the attack on Chi Phung, the 23-year-old Vietnamese student who came to NZ six years ago. She was brutally attacked by a skinhead who punched her in the chest and while she lay on the ground crying and hurt, no passing people attempted to help her. This vicious and cruel attack not only showed the racist ideals of people but also showed how it was enabled and allowed to happen as no one tried to help her. The passing people may have been not directly racist but refusing to help her contributes to the racist ideas and enables such hate crimes.
“He punched me under my breast so hard that I fell down and I cried for about 20 minutes. Nobody in the crowd stopped to help.” – Chi Phung
It reminded me of when I was little and I had to learn quickly that I was different. Like, Laura Toailoa, I became totally aware that I was not the same as other kiwi children. I would get verbally abused in the streets by strangers; things such as “Go back to China”(despite the fact I’m of Korean descent), “stop taking all our bloody jobs” (despite the fact I was a child and was in no position to take anyone’s job), “Bloody Asian invaders” (despite the fact I didn’t invade here, I was born here) and one instance I even had rubbish thrown at me from passing cars. Children would even yell racist slang at me yet their mothers who witnessed this did not correct them. This shows just like Chi Phung’s incident, that people enable this race hate by not standing up, not correcting others and choose to look the other way. Did it matter to these people that they didn’t know me and I was Korean Kiwi? No. All they saw was a foreigner’s face and despite knowing my cultural identity and who I was, I felt attacked, isolated, and helpless at the lack of anyone coming to my defense.
Such blatant racism and the microaggressions I faced during my younger years made me feel that my cultural identity as a second generation ‘Kiwi Korean’ was something that hindered me in life and often asked my parents “why couldn’t I be born kiwi?” to which they responded, “but you are.” They were right but at the time I couldn’t seem to stop wishing I had been born a ‘white kiwi’ because then I wouldn’t have to face the negativity that was attached to being an Asian in NZ.
2. Go to the library and ask for one of the 237.131 2 hour loan books. Find the name of a creative practitioner in that book, then search for that name on the book catalog PCs (upstairs, Level B – don’t use Discover). Locate an image of their work (preferably in print) that fits with your creative writing. Scan this and upload it to your blog, remembering to include a caption.
My chosen creative practitioner is Andy Leleisi’uao. Born in NZ, this Samoan artist uses a ‘Kamoan’ (Kiwi/Samoan) perspective in which he “provides a voice for the generational experiences of the Newz Zealand-born Samoan people living between two cultures” (Home AKLE : Artists of Pacific Heritage in Auckland.69). Leleisi’uao, like myself, is Kiwi Born with immigrant parents, who has faced the two cultural clashes of being Samoan and Kiwi.
“Waking up to my Polynesian spine” is a work of Leleisi’uao who he says is part of 23 artworks in his exhibition where he exposes the true realities of Pacific migrants and their experience of the land that was supposed to be ‘Milk and Honey’. The artwork below demonstrates his “raw and confronting style” of addressing and creating awareness for the issues for NZ born and island born Samoans.
Tze Ming, Mok. “Tze Ming Mok: Being Asian – the Struggle to Belong.” New Zealand Herald. N.p., 1 June 2005. Web.
Toailoa, Laura. “Where Are You From?” E Tangata 11 Sept. 2016: n. pag. Print.
Robertson, Christine. “Growing up Samoan in New Zealand and the Racist Microaggressions I’ve Faced along the Way.” Thatsus. Human Rights Commission NZ, 21 Oct. 2016. Web.
Brownson, Ron, Kolokesa Mahina-Tuai, Albert L. Refiti, Emma Tavola, and Nina Tonga. Home AKL : Artists of Pacific Heritage in Auckland. N.p.: n.p., n.d. Print.
2. Melanie Wall identifies some of the more common Māori stereotypes that have appeared in New Zealand’s media. Take one of the examples of representations of Māori from Dick’s lecture and discuss it in relation to Wall’s ideas (100 words).
Maori as primitive, natural athlete.
From the beginning of the Colonial times, Maori have been imagined as ‘cave like people’, ‘half-naked savages’ that were these primitive people to be feared. This is a stark contrast to the imagining of the European people who were imagined as civilized, cultured and educated people. However, this harmful stereotype is still ingrained in New Zealand society today. For example, in New Zealand’s rugby culture, they use this stereotype as an advantage/strength, The violent, savage beast stereotype of Maori males is portrayed and enhanced. The Warriors rugby team are shown in stoic, masculine, half-naked forms for an advert to show”black athleticism.”The representation of Maori in this way is often regarded demeaning and harmful, presenting this stereotypical idea of how Maori are a primitive, natural athlete and lack intelligence.
Wall, Melanie. “Stereotypical Constructions of the Maori ‘race’ in the Media.”New Zealand Geographer 1997: n. pag. Print. Research
1.Select one of the examples of a representation of poverty or wealth in Aotearoa New Zealand in Dr. Greg Gilbert’s lecture. Upload an image of this example to your blog. Describe the example and the context in which it was made, then discuss it in relation to one of the key concepts Greg introduced in his lecture, using sources other than Greg to support your ideas. These sources may be ones that Greg references in his lecture (100 words).
An example of poverty representation in Aotearoa NZ is what Dr Greg Gilbert talked about in his lecture. There is a harmful stereotype of people who are classified as “Poor” as they are considered and categorised (According to Gans (1995, 6-7), as things such as
– Undeserving of assistance
– to blame for their poverty and situation
– lazy, unwilling to help themselves
The cartoon image by Al Nisbert shows a negative stereotype of poverty that is often joked about by people. It features some overweight, dark-skinned adults pretending to be children in uniform in order to get a free school lunch so they can have more money for cigarettes, alcohol, and gambling. They are shown to be exploiting the free school lunch system that NZ was considering putting in to place.
It reinforces the stereotype of Pacific Island/Polynesian/Maori people are all greedy, lazy and are their own fault for their situation as they chose to live this way.
1. Identify one key point and/or theme from the Week 7 lecture. Find an academic source (not the lecture itself, but the source may be one that is cited in the lecture) for that key point/theme.Paraphrase the academic source text relating to the key point/theme. Remember to accurately reference the source using the MLA style (50 words)
A key theme from the week 7 lecture, was the idea of racism towards Pacific/Polynesian people in the form of political propaganda that was spread by the media. It instilled fear, increased racism against brown people and enhanced harmful stereotypes against those with Pacific/Polynesian descent.
Especially during the National’s party Robert Muldoon’s campaign for the 1975 election, he screened powerful, emotive and racist commercials that showcased the increased immigration from the Pacific Islands as a horrible thing as islanders were shown to be violent, aggressive, scary and greedy.
“They featured cartoons of violent brown people with huge afro’s, arriving off the place going to the pub, stealing jobs” Oscar Keightly – Dawn raids.
2. Using examples in “All Power to the People” by Melani Anae (2012), or “The Many Faces of Paradise” by Caroline Vercoe (2004), describe one of the art/design/creative responses to the socio-political situation that confronted Pacific Islanders in Aotearoa in the late 20th century (50 – 75 words).
One of the design responses found in “All Power to the People” by Melani Anae, was the logo of the Polynesian movement that stood to defend and be the justice movement for those of Polynesian/Pacific descent who faced unfair oppression by police and the NZ government.
Polynesian Panther Movement based off the original Black Panthers founded in 1966 by Huey Newton and Bobby Seale. While they both stood to protect neighbourhoods and communities from acts of police brutality, the NZ group realised they had to make it more specific and relatable to those of the Pacific/Polynesian community so altered it to the Polynesian Panther party. This design worked as the logo was.
United by the original movements ‘black unity’
3. Write a synopsis of the documentary ‘Dawn Raids’ (Fepulea’i, D. 2005) (50 – 75 words)
The documentary ‘Dawn Raids’ confronts the real NZ historical issue of when illegal immigrant overstayers were targeted in local communities during the mid-1970’s to the 1980’s. The illegal immigrants consisted of mainly Pacific Islander and Polynesian workers who were initially welcomed by the NZ government after the postwar economic boom as jobs were plentiful; only to be forcibly removed from the country after NZ’s economy wasn’t so stable.
Special police forces struck at dawn to catch these overstayers outside their houses as this was before they went to work, thus the only chance to catch them.However the issue just wasn’t with the overstayers, it was with New Zealand’s racist attitude to those of brown skin colour and how these were spread with media as turns out the majority of overstayers were from Great Britain, South Africa and Australia.
Dawn Raids. Dir. Damon Fepulea’i. Prod. Rachel Jean. Dawn Raids Documentary. N.p., n.d. Web.
Anae, Melani. “All Power to the People.” 2012: 221-39. Print.
Both Mane-Wheoki and Anderson describe how Māori visual and material culture has been framed by predominantly western accounts. Discuss this, using both readings to support your discussion (100 words). Choose an example of 20th century art/design from anywhere in “Tangata Whenua: An Illustrated History”. Upload the example to your blog and explain how the work can be considered from a Māori worldview (consider origins, customary practices etc) (100 words).
Chapter 9 (Wars and Survival) of Tangata Whenua – an illustrated history, details of the historical wars that NZ faced during the period of 1860-1872.
The beginning of the wars started in Taranaki as the issue of land ownership arose.The chief stated the Waitara land was not for sale yet the government pushed for against this and ignored Maori objections. This led to Maori grouping together in order to fight the British Government who insisted on surveying and buying land that was not for sale.”Maori had to calibrate decisions carefully…to preserve tribal autonomy while protecting their lands…weighing the value of alliance with or resistance against the government” (256) “Lives were lost on all sides and for several iwi, land would be confiscated as well” (256)
Overall the wars were not just about the rights and ownership of land but the larger issue of sovereignty and Rangatiratanga. “The Taranaki wars was never simply about the fate of a 600 acre block of land at Waitara.”(256)
We are able to see the lasting effects of the war with visual and material culture with the NZ flag. This flag excluded Maori culture and instead highlights the difference between the two cultures. Instead of uniting two cultures as one nation, it divided them.
Anderson, Atholl, Binney, Judith and Harris, Aroha. “Chapter 9: Wars and survival”. Tangata whenua: An illustrated history. Bridget Williams Books, 2014. Print.
Anderson, Robyn. “Across Time: Ngā Haki, Ngā Kara Flags”. Tangata Whenua: An Illustrated History. Robyn Anderson. Aotearoa: Bridget Williams Books, 2014. 284-285. Print.